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Štanjel

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Address: Štanjel 6222 Štanjel
Phone: ++386 5 769 00 56
e-mail:
http://www.kras-carso.com
Štanjel is one of the most picturesque and oldest settlements in the Karst. It is famous for its magnificent design and the old settlement (of prehistoric origins) of exceptional historical and architectural value. Štanjel gets its name from its patron saint St. Daniel. In older times, it was known as St. Angel or Archangel, as the castle was called. The old part of the village consists of typical open-style Karst houses, which have preserved their Roman and Gothic origins. The streets are narrow and end in small squares with monumental wells. The first known data regarding the first settlement go back to the hill fort era, where a prehistoric hill fort was built on top of the Turn Hill, but in ancient times it was occupied by the Romans who had a magnificent view and full control of the entire transitional area from the Karst to the Vipava Valley. On its sunny terraces, the settlement spread in the Middle Ages. Štanjel was first mentioned in the Gorizia/Gorica land book in 1402, but throughout the area it was a well-known and important trade station. After 1500, with the end of the rule of the Counts of Gorica and the arrival of the Habsburgs, its trade reputation fell. The settlement became an important military fort during the times of the Venetian wars and Turkish incursions. Because of the Turks, a defence wall was built at the end of the 15th century. When the troubled times were over, houses and also a part of the castle were built against the wall and defence towers because of the scarcity of space. The Venetians occupied Štanjel in 1508 but only for a very short period of time. From the 16th to 18th century, the settlement was under the rule of the feudal lords of Cobenzl, who built a residential mansion, and chose the Church of Štanjel to hold their family vault. The members of this aristocratic family included prominent officials and diplomatic representatives of the Habsburgs (for example, the Captains of Trieste and Heads of Carniola) as among the founders of the Brussels Academy and also a similar institution in Gorica. Further extensive modifications to the castle, church and defence wall gave the village a permanent stamp which has been preserved up until today. In World War I the village was occupied by the Austrian army, who transformed the castle into a hospital for its officers. In the lower part of the village it set up military bases, a hospital and a cemetery. In the interwar period the village acquired a special architectural and urbanistic reputation thanks to the architect and urbanist Max Fabiani from Kobdilj, who was also Mayor of Štanjel from 1935. (See chapter “Important Personalities”). During World War II, the castle was set on fire along with several houses and the villagers had to spend the war as refugees in the neighbouring villages. The revitalization of the castle began in the 1960s and is still going on today. After World War II, a new part of the settlement began to develop below the castle.

 
The first known data regarding the first settlement go back to the hill fort era, where a prehistoric hill fort was built on top of the Turn Hill, but in ancient times it was occupied by the Romans who had a magnificent view and full control of the entire transitional area from the Karst to the Vipava Valley. On its sunny terraces, the settlement spread in the Middle Ages. Štanjel was first mentioned in the  Gorizia/Gorica land book in 1402, but throughout the area it was a well-known and important trade station. After 1500, with the end of the rule of the Counts of Gorica and the arrival of the Habsburgs, its trade reputation fell. The settlement became an important military fort during the times of the Venetian wars and Turkish incursions. Because of the Turks, a defence wall was built at the end of the 15th century. When the troubled times were over, houses and also a part of the castle were built against the wall and defence towers because of the scarcity of space. The Venetians occupied Štanjel in 1508 but only for a very short period of time. From the 16th to 18th century, the settlement was under the rule of the feudal lords of Cobenzl, who built a residential mansion, and chose the Church of Štanjel to hold their family vault. The members of this aristocratic family included prominent officials and diplomatic representatives of the Habsburgs (for example, the Captains of Trieste and Heads of Carniola) as among the founders of the Brussels Academy and also a similar institution in Gorica. Further extensive modifications to the castle, church and defence wall gave the village a permanent stamp which has been preserved up until today. In World War I the village was occupied by the Austrian army, who transformed the castle into a hospital for its officers. In the lower part of the village it set up military bases, a hospital and a cemetery. In the interwar period the village acquired a special architectural and urbanistic reputation thanks to the architect and urbanist Max Fabiani from Kobdilj, who was also Mayor of Štanjel from 1935. (See chapter “Important Personalities”). During World War II, the castle was set on fire along with several houses and the villagers had to spend the war as refugees in the neighbouring villages. The revitalization of the castle began in the 1960s and is still going on today. After World War II, a new part of the settlement began to develop below the castle.

 
 
The Parish Church of St. Daniel was built between 1455 and 1460 where an older building once stood. Despite later Baroque alterations it represents one of the most important monuments of Gothic architecture in the Karst. Two Gothic entrances are still visible from the outside. There are also some Gothic windows and a ring of pillars by the presbytery. Inside, a sharp Gothic arch leads to the presbytery. The church got its current Baroque design in the 17th and 18th centuries. The stone Baroque altars are believed to have been made by the Lazzarini atelier of Gorica. The most interesting one is a relief depicting the Castle of Štanjel on the main altar. Two wooden statues of saints were made by the renowned Štajerska sculptor Johan Straub. In 1609, a belltower was added to the main building. Because of its characteristic lemon-like spire it has become the symbol of Štanjel. Both outside and in, we can see the tombstones of the Counts of Cobenzel and other dynasties. On the facade of the sacristy a monument dedicated to Anton Mahnič was built by Evgen Guštin.

The Ferrari Garden (Ferrarijev Vrt) below the fortified settlement. The path to the top of the garden leads through the Kobdilj Tower. The villa complex and garden took shape in the 1920s and 1930s under the supervision of Max Fabiani. It is the most important park complex in Slovenia from the interwar period. The owner of the whole complex was Enrico Ferrari, a doctor from Trieste and Max Fabiani’s nephew, who bought up the majority of properties in the first row of buildings above the park and also some of the buildings in the second row. Fabiani renovated the houses, but he did not separate them from the street. The transformation from a farm homestead into a villa was a conceptual innovation in European architecture. The park side of the houses is arranged as a rural villa with a park. The garden itself is composed of several terraces, which are influenced by the architectural style of the buildings of Štanjel, and it blends in well with the surrounding landscape. Besides vegetable and flower beds, various plants and trees, pergolas, a bowling green, a scenic overlook and a pavilion, the main characteristic of the garden is a pool which was filled from a purpose - built water supply. Rainwater was collected from the hill in Štanjel. Using the same system, all the buildings of the villa had their own running water. Unfortunately, this water supply system was destroyed in World War II together with many houses and a tower at the end of the complex on the north-eastern side. The villa and park have their own entrances in the form of a path, which encircles the hill of Štanjel and ends with wrought iron gates embossed with the personalised logo of the owner. From the Ferrari Garden and the circular path the visitor has beautiful views of the Branica Valley. Recently, the park has become a popular place for lovers, and wedding ceremonies sometimes take place on the Venetian Bridge.

 


6222 
Štanjel 
Tel. : ++386 (0)5 769 00 56 
E-mail :  
Web site : www.komen.si 


guided tour
GPS Northing (N) : 45,8226 
GPS Easting (E) : 13,8438 
Photos
Administrator : Občina Komen - TIC Štanjel | ++386 5 769 00 56 | | last modified: 29/10/2010
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GPS N: 45,8226
E: 13,8438
Destination: Karst

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